“Nations will revert to their natural tendency of hiding behind their borders, of moving towards protectionism, of listening to vested interests, and they’ll forget about transcending those national priorities,” said Christine Lagarde, the managing director of the International Monetary Fund back in 2013.
The problem is that, nowadays, nation-states can’t even think of solving the world’s problems on their own. The most pressing challenges for the humankind are obviously transnational and so complex that no country has enough resources to tackle them by itself.
But even in the case of issues that apparently affect just a single country, solving them always requires the conjoined effort of many states. Technology entangled the world in a web of relations and there’s no way back.
However, it’s evident that in Europe, and in the Western hemisphere in general, nationalism is making a comeback and there’s an increasing number of people that find it difficult to think beyond the boundaries of their own country. This is literally a quite limited horizon. If we want to deal with global issues such as climate change, we need to start thinking of the Earth as a single entity, beyond the narrowness of national borders
Of course, nation states will not disappear any time soon. But if we start thinking beyond them, we might come up with more effective solutions to the world’s problems. In other words, what we need is a view shift.
However, if changing idea is already a daunting task for our stubborn minds, changing our world’s view (again, quite literally) sounds like a desperately tough endeavor; how can a person that grew up in a world divided by rigid borders, forget all of a sudden about them?
After all, the only people who truly experience the Earth as a single entity are astronauts. From space, astronauts can contemplate the planet as a minuscule dot, lost in the sea of nothingness. From up there —astronauts say — the Earth looks like “a fragile ball of life, hanging in the void, shielded and nourished by a paper-thin atmosphere.”
Viewing the planet from the space changed many astronauts’ perspective on the planet itself and on other earthly matters. Among the many spacefarers who reported this cognitive shift in awareness — that is known as “overview effect” — there’s the Canadian astronaut Chris Hadfield who said that, while orbiting Earth, he felt more connected to the people on the planet than ever before. Unfortunately, as of June 2018, only 561 people made it to the space and experienced the Earth as a single environment.
But what if we could make experience the “overview effect” to hundreds of thousands of people? What if we could all have the chance to see the Earth as a fragile ball of life nourished by a paper-thin atmosphere? Even better, what if every child had this chance? After all, a child’s mind has not yet been molded and made rigid by decades of news about wars over borders and similar matters.
A generation of children who experienced the “overview effect” would probably become a generation of adults more prone to see the Earth beyond the narrowness of national boundaries and interests. It would probably be a generation better equipped to front global challenges such as the climate breakdown.
In a way, this is the goal of a newly established Dutch organization called Spacebuzz. Few days ago, while ruminating over these issues, I bumped into their website. Their mission statement is to become “an educational project to inspire children worldwide to become ambassadors of our planet through the experience of viewing Earth from space like an astronaut.”
In particular, they want to visit schools with a custom-made immersive VR experience and make children between the age of nine to 12 experience the overview effect as if they were astronauts hanging on in space. The project, that is encouraged by real-life ESA astronaut Andre Kuipers, is still in its launch phase but it already looks like a promising stride in the right direction. And that direction is up, to the stars, from where the Earth looks like a little fragile ecosystem.
As astronomer Carl Sagan said describing the “Blue Pale Dot”, a photograph of Planet Earth taken by space probe Voyager 1 in 1990 from a distance of about 6 billion kilometers: “Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity – in all this vastness – there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves. It is up to us.”
It is up to us to (try to) stop climate change and find sustainable ways to grow and develop. And it’s up to us to solve these problems cooperating together, beyond outdated national borders. A project like Spacebuzz might definitely help.
This article was originally published on Forbes
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Pupils in 60 countries went on strike from school on March 15, 2019, to demand urgent action from the world’s leaders on climate change. Here, a scientist answers teenagers’ questions about climate change, gathered by the Priestley International Centre for Climate at a previous strike in February. You can find more Q&As like this on the centre’s website.
The “12 years” date you’ve heard comes from a special report requested by the United Nations, which looks at the impacts of global warming at 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. At the moment, the world is 1°C warmer than in the late 19th century: the earliest period for which we have reliable temperature measurements and just before the Industrial Revolution got into full swing.
To avoid global warming above 1.5°C, humanity needs to cut its carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions to about half of today’s levels by 2030, and to zero by 2050. The 2030 date – 12 years from when the report was released in October 2018 – got a lot of media attention.
Missing the 2030 deadline would make it very difficult to keep global warming under 1.5°C. That temperature is not necessarily safe, but the damage caused by climate change will quickly get worse with higher levels of warming.
At today’s 1°C of warming, there have already been increases in extreme weather events (such as heat waves and flooding), as well as food shortages and effects on food production. Entire species are already going extinct, for reasons related to climate change.
At 2°C of warming or above, rising sea levels, more frequent extreme weather and damaging effects on food and water supplies will make some parts of the world very hard to live in. As a result, it’s predicted that many people will need to leave their homes and become climate refugees, while many millions more people worldwide will be exposed to poverty. What’s more, many species will be lost and virtually all corals will die.
Unfortunately, we are not on track to keep warming below 1.5°C, or even 2°C. If countries hit their existing targets, temperatures will rise by around 3°C – or more than that, if emissions continue to grow.
The planet itself will survive man-made climate change. In fact, it has been warmer, millions of years ago, although the world looked very different back then. Humans are not expected to go extinct – but we will have to learn to cope with a warmer world, and all its challenges. This means cooperating and providing support and resources to vulnerable people.
No single policy will end climate change, but a very effective strategy would be to quickly phase out fossil fuels such as coal and petrol, which are used to create electricity and power transport. There are many different ways to achieve this goal, and it’s important that leaders choose policies that create good jobs and strengthen communities.
For example, governments need to put money towards safe, reliable, efficient and affordable trains and buses, so people can get around without using cars. Towns and cities should be designed to be more friendly to walking, cycling and public transport. Homes should have good transport links, and be built or modified to be more energy efficient, so that they’re easier to keep cool in the summer and warm in the winter.
International air travel is also responsible for a growing share of global emissions and governments around the world need to work together to come up with a response.
Farming – especially meat and dairy production – also creates a surprisingly large amount of emissions. So, governments should encourage farmers to use sustainable approaches. Agriculture can also lead to deforestation. Since trees remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, forests must be protected, and new trees planted.
First, you can find out what your environmental footprint is using this questionnaire from the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The survey gives advice to help you and your family reduce your impact. Research has also highlighted the biggest changes a person can make to help the climate. They are:
Smaller actions in your daily life can also help. Turning down the heating or air conditioning at home and only heating or cooling the rooms you’re using will save money and reduce carbon emissions. Try to buy less clothing, plastics and gadgets, since it takes resources and energy to make these items.
Make, borrow, swap, buy secondhand or find things for free, and recycle as much as possible that can’t be reused. When you’re old enough, you can also choose to put your money in an ethical bank account, and get electricity from 100% renewables.
Individual changes will only go so far, but remember that your actions can inspire others. Use your voice! Talking about climate change with your friends, family and classmates really helps to raise awareness and drive further action.
We are living through a period of unprecedented environmental breakdown which is increasingly being referred to as “the Anthropocene”. As the term becomes more and more pervasive, I want to explain why, as a psychologist and a committed environmentalist, I think it is a highly problematic way of framing our predicament.
Originally proposed by atmospheric scientists and then geologists, the Anthropocene has come to the fore as a powerful if perplexing way of talking about our current era. This is a period in which, for the first time in its history, the Earth is being deeply transformed by one species – humans. The word Anthropocene refers to the idea that the Earth’s geological record has been transformed by humanity: Anthropos is Greek for human and -cene is a substantial geological time period within the current 65 million year old Cenozoic era.
While I agree that this is an important and timely provocation, I want to pause here for a moment, and consider whether the Anthropocene narrative really does capture our predicament and our prospects.
There is already plenty of criticism of the Anthropocene idea. Alternative terms like Capitalocene (which attempts to highlight the detrimental forces of capitalism), and Plantationocene (which emphasises the role of colonialism, the plantation system and slave labour) have been offered as a way of doubling down on the elements of human history responsible for environmental crises, rather than lumping all humans, and their responsibility, together. But I want to concentrate on the idea of time itself.
“Deep time” is the concept of geological time that is used “to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth’s history”. That’s a 4.54 billion year history. We struggle to grasp the huge scale of a sense of time that is so, well, deep. There are numerous analogies for helping us comprehend this enormity, like the 24-hour clock – that humans have only been on the planet for 19 seconds of it. I like the onebelow, as you can visualise it simply enough by holding out your arm.
If the Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago at the shoulder, animals of any kind appear within the palm, and more familiar (to us) lifeforms originate at the first knuckle. Movement along the fingers represent the periods that followed, incorporating, for example, the Jurassic. And humans? The 11,700-year-old Holocene marks the start of a global spread of homo sapiens – “a microscopic sliver at the tip of a fingernail”. The beginning of the proposed Anthropocene, whether we go with a starting point of a mooted 400 years, 70 or somewhere in between, is a tiny speck within this sliver.
So, have homo sapiens created a new geological era? In simple terms, there is something of a case here – there’s plenty of evidence for human impact in the geological record, from signatures of human-induced climate change, atomic testing, and much more. But a fuller appreciation of deep time should actually make us wary of the Anthropocene label, maybe even shift our image of ourselves and what it means to inhabit the Earth at this time. Here’s why.
Around 66m years ago, a mass extinction event took place, wiping out around three quarters of all species. This was most likely the result of an enormous asteroid impact – a conclusion reached after the discovery of a thin but distinct layer of sediment in the geologic record from this time, containing elements abundant in asteroids.
Mass extinction offered an opportunity for the rise of mammals as dominant lifeforms – ushering in the Cenezoic (“new life”) era. This thin layer of comet dust in the rock record represents a brief but vital transition between much thicker preceding and subsequent layers. But no one refers to what followed the mass extinction event as the “Cometocene”. That just wouldn’t make sense – the impact was a one-off event, significant in the context of deep time only in that it ushered in new foundations for life that then stretched out for millions of years into the far future.
What if the same could be said of our influence? What if, even with the well-documented effects of an Anthropocene still accumulating, we are talking about human impacts as a mere blip in the context of deep time? This is likely true. The spread of industrialism has aggressively and rapidly extracted and used up a finite supply of resources. The fact of finiteness, coupled with unprecedented environmental breakdown, fundamentally circumscribes the long-term viability of any possible era of human dominance.
This is what the American writer John Michael Greer claims when he says that all forms of industrial civilisation combined, in the context of geological time, are unremarkably short-lived and “self-terminating” – simply a transition between eras. This is why he considers the Holocene-Neocene transition, H-N transition for short, as a more accurate term, with Neocene being a placeholder name for whatever emerges next.
Our geological legacy will probably be like the comet dust – “a slightly odd transition layer a quarter of an inch thick”. As a remarkably adaptive species, humans may find ecological niches to survive and flourish in this far future, but we will not be dominant.
This does not mean we are heading towards some kind of one-off cataclysm – another extinction event. It means we are already living through one. But rather than being remembered as something grandiloquent and portentous – like the Anthropocene – it is more likely that some far future species would think of us as what historian Stephen Kern calls “a parenthesis of infinitesimal brevity”. In the context of deep time, the Earth will continue to meander on without us, and it will hardly notice we’re gone, just as it hardly knew we were here.
This sojourn into deep time is not intended to be depressing or defeatist, certainly not to rule out hope, or to avoid acknowledgement of the damage humans can do. I think its psychological relevance is to offer a reminder of life itself as something to approach with reverence and awe; our species as interdependent and interconnected, not somehow apart; and to chip away at any residual hubris in the idea of the Anthropocene.
Locating humanity in an even deeper story can seem scary. But it might also be liberating. For countless cultures around the world of course, this is nothing new – many Indigenous worldviews embrace nature, have a reverence for it and a deep sense of time and place. While being historically displaced from those places by the forces of colonialism and industrialism, these voices are often neglected.
The history of our far future, if we have one, will be one where we learnt to recognise interdependence with nature, with other species. In the end, it is about what it means to be human. As the late environmental philosopher Val Plumwood warned: “We will go onwards in a different mode of humanity, or not at all.”
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. It's written by Matthew Adams, Principal Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Brighton. You can read the original article here.
Thank God It's #FridaysForFuture. In 123 countries and some 2050 cities, thousands of young people are rallying to press politicians to act on climate change, united under the hashtag #FridaysForFuture.
#FridaysForFuture started in August 2018 when 15-year-old Greta Thunberg stood in front of the Swedish parliament every school day for three weeks to protest the lack of adequate governmental initiatives to halt climate change.
Since then, the initiative grew into a global movement with weekly climate strikes almost everywhere in the world.
The general aim of the protest is to press governments to respect the long-term goals set by the Paris Agreement. In 2016, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change gathered near Paris and discussed how to curb the effects of climate change. The outcome was a document that committed its 196 state-party signers to limit the increase of global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels.
#FridaysForFuture is a movement fueled by the (renewable) energy of young people from all over the world. In the end, it's their future that is at stake.
At the same time, and fortunately, older generations are weighing in too. Just have a look at one of the latest tweets by 2020 presidential candidate Bernie Sanders:
It's relieving to see that the anti-climate change movement that is emerging globally is not just transnational but also transgenerational.
Problems of this magnitude can be addressed only by bridging the gaps between as many stakeholders as possible.
If you want to concretely contribute to halting climate change, you might also consider donating to a highly-effective non-profit that is fighting it. Like Cool Earth, a Kinder-vetted organisation that is working to protect rainforests 👇